- What is meant by biotransformation?
- What is xenobiotic stress?
- Is alcohol a xenobiotic?
- What metabolizes caffeine?
- What are xenobiotics and their examples?
- Is caffeine a xenobiotic?
- What does the body do to a lipophilic compound during metabolism?
- What are xenobiotics PDF?
- Are xenobiotics harmful?
- Are antibiotics xenobiotics?
- Is Mercury a xenobiotic?
- What is xenobiotic degradation?
- What does prodrug mean?
- What are the phases of biotransformation?
- What is the difference between biotransformation and metabolism?
- Why xenobiotics are recalcitrant?
- How can xenobiotics be of concern to human?
What is meant by biotransformation?
Biotransformation is the process by which a substance changes from one chemical to another (transformed) by a chemical reaction within the body.
Metabolism or metabolic transformations are terms frequently used for the biotransformation process..
What is xenobiotic stress?
Description. Xenobiotics such as drugs, chemotherapy, food additives, and environmental pollutants are foreign chemical compounds to our biological system. These compounds generate several free radicals that lead to increase the oxidative stress in the cells.
Is alcohol a xenobiotic?
Alcohol and xenobiotics share the same oxidative microsomal pathway, which is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. This pathway involves enzymes that belong to the super family of cytochrome P450 and allows to explain a lot of pharmacokinetic or toxic interactions between alcohol and xenobiotics.
What metabolizes caffeine?
Caffeine is primarily metabolised in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are responsible for more than 90% of caffeine clearance19. The enzyme responsible for metabolism of caffeine is coded for by the gene CYP1A2.
What are xenobiotics and their examples?
Xenobiotic is a term used to describe chemical substances that are foreign to animal life and thus includes such examples as plant constituents, drugs, pesticides, cosmetics, flavorings, fragrances, food additives, industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants.
Is caffeine a xenobiotic?
Caffeine is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in humans, acting as a stimulant, and has been employed as a convenient model xenobiotic in Drosophila research, where it is known to induce the expression of a number of P450 and GST genes in Drosophila S2 cells, larvae and adults [19–22].
What does the body do to a lipophilic compound during metabolism?
Drug metabolism often converts lipophilic compounds into hydrophilic products that are more readily excreted.
What are xenobiotics PDF?
Xenobiotic compounds are man made chemicals that are present in the environment at higher concentration. These are either not produced naturally or are produced at much lower amount than that by man. The compounds that resist biodegradation and persist in the environment for long period of time are called recalcitrant.
Are xenobiotics harmful?
Origin of Xenobiotics Some organisms may also form them as a part of their defense system, e.g., mycotoxins, bacterial and herbal toxins, etc., and xenobiotics become harmful when entering the food chain. Contemporary human exposure to xenobiotics is unavoidable, as they are omnipresent.
Are antibiotics xenobiotics?
The most studied xenobiotics affecting microbes are antibiotics. These medicinal weapons against disease have been with us for some 70 years and for the most part have helped save millions of lives.
Is Mercury a xenobiotic?
Abstract. Xenobiotic-metals such as mercury (Hg) and silver (Ag) induce an H-2 linked antinucleolar autoantibody (ANolA) production in susceptible mice.
What is xenobiotic degradation?
In other words, defined as the ability of microorganisms to convert toxic chemicals (xenobiotics) to simpler non-toxic compounds by synthesis of certain enzymes • Biodegradation of xenobiotics can be affected by substrate specificity, nutrition source, temperature, pH etc. …
What does prodrug mean?
Prodrug: A precursor (forerunner) of a drug. A prodrug must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming an active pharmacological agent. For example, sulfasalazine is a prodrug. It is not active in its ingested form.
What are the phases of biotransformation?
Biotransformation Reaction Phases They are usually classified as Phase I and Phase II reactions. Phase I reactions are generally reactions which modify the chemical by adding a functional structure.
What is the difference between biotransformation and metabolism?
In short, “metabolism of drugs” is a form of biotransformation which happens to drugs in a body, whereas “biotransformation” is a more general term which applies equally well to the actions of a disembodied enzyme digesting an oil slick.
Why xenobiotics are recalcitrant?
But some xenobiotics are recalcitrant in nature because of various reasons. Some of them cannot be used as substrate by microbes, some cannot transport them due to absence of transporting enzymes and some are in accessible to microbes due to larger structure and insolubility.
How can xenobiotics be of concern to human?
With the development of the society, the xenobiotics have brought high potential risk to human and animal. Insecticides bring high risk to human and animal through food, water, and air. …