Quick Answer: How Can Xenobiotics Be Of Concern To Human?

What is xenobiotics PDF?

Xenobiotic compounds are man made chemicals that are present in the environment at higher concentration.

These are either not produced naturally or are produced at much lower amount than that by man.

The compounds that resist biodegradation and persist in the environment for long period of time are called recalcitrant..

Are xenobiotics harmful?

Origin of Xenobiotics Some organisms may also form them as a part of their defense system, e.g., mycotoxins, bacterial and herbal toxins, etc., and xenobiotics become harmful when entering the food chain. Contemporary human exposure to xenobiotics is unavoidable, as they are omnipresent.

Is caffeine a xenobiotic?

Caffeine is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in humans, acting as a stimulant, and has been employed as a convenient model xenobiotic in Drosophila research, where it is known to induce the expression of a number of P450 and GST genes in Drosophila S2 cells, larvae and adults [19–22].

What are xenobiotics and their examples?

Xenobiotic is a term used to describe chemical substances that are foreign to animal life and thus includes such examples as plant constituents, drugs, pesticides, cosmetics, flavorings, fragrances, food additives, industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants.

What is the meaning of bioremediation?

Bioremediation is a branch of biotechnology that employs the use of living organisms, like microbes and bacteria, in the removal of contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, water, and other environments.

Why are drugs referred to as xenobiotics?

The term xenobiotics, however, is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their …

Is alcohol a xenobiotic?

Alcohol and xenobiotics share the same oxidative microsomal pathway, which is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. This pathway involves enzymes that belong to the super family of cytochrome P450 and allows to explain a lot of pharmacokinetic or toxic interactions between alcohol and xenobiotics.

What is xenobiotic degradation?

In other words, defined as the ability of microorganisms to convert toxic chemicals (xenobiotics) to simpler non-toxic compounds by synthesis of certain enzymes • Biodegradation of xenobiotics can be affected by substrate specificity, nutrition source, temperature, pH etc. …

What is xenobiotic stress?

Description. Xenobiotics such as drugs, chemotherapy, food additives, and environmental pollutants are foreign chemical compounds to our biological system. These compounds generate several free radicals that lead to increase the oxidative stress in the cells.

Is Mercury a xenobiotic?

Abstract. Xenobiotic-metals such as mercury (Hg) and silver (Ag) induce an H-2 linked antinucleolar autoantibody (ANolA) production in susceptible mice.

What is a Phase 2 reaction?

Phase II Reactions. … Phase II reactions are conjugation reactions where a molecule normally present in the body is added to the reactive site of the Phase I metabolite . The result is a conjugated metabolite that is more water soluble than the original xenobiotic or Phase I metabolite .

How xenobiotics can cause toxicity?

Displacement of toxic xenobiotics from plasma proteins can greatly increase the amount of unbound toxicant distributed to target organs or tissue. A wide variety of xenobiotics accumulate in the liver and kidneys, making these organs ideal sites for postmortem sample collection in cases of suspected toxicoses.

What are xenobiotic chemicals?

CHEBI:35703 – xenobiotic A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism. It can also cover substances that are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.

Are heavy metals xenobiotics?

Conclusions: We present evidence that pollution with heavy metals will interfere with both the oxidative stress defence in plants, and with their ability to conjugate organic xenobiotics. … Induction of xenobiotic metabolism will be obtained at high heavy metal concentrations, when plant stress is elevated.

What is cytochrome p450?

Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the synthesis of many molecules including steroid hormones, certain fats (cholesterol and other fatty acids), and acids used to digest fats (bile acids).

Why xenobiotics are recalcitrant?

But some xenobiotics are recalcitrant in nature because of various reasons. Some of them cannot be used as substrate by microbes, some cannot transport them due to absence of transporting enzymes and some are in accessible to microbes due to larger structure and insolubility.

What metabolizes caffeine?

Caffeine is primarily metabolised in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are responsible for more than 90% of caffeine clearance19. The enzyme responsible for metabolism of caffeine is coded for by the gene CYP1A2.

What is the study of xenobiotics called?

The studies on xenobiotics include the rates and extents of the processes and the biological consequences. The term Xenobiotic comes from the Greek for xeno (foreign) and biotics (of or pertaining to life). Xenobiotics are compounds that are foreign to an organism or are not part of its normal nutrition.